DEFECTS OF THE EYE

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There are many eye related problems and defects of the eye, the main few are briefly discussed below:

  Defects of the eye:

Myopia: (nearsightedness) This is a defect of vision in which far objects appear blurred but near objects are seen clearly. The image is focused in front of the retina rather than on it usually because the eyeball is too long or the refractive power of the eye’s lens too strong. Myopia can be corrected by wearing glasses/contacts with concave lenses these help to focus the image on the retina.

Hyperopia: (farsightedness) This is a defect of vision in which there is difficulty with near vision but far objects can be seen easily. The image is focused behind the retina rather than upon it. This occurs when the eyeball is too short or the refractive power of the lens is too weak. Hyperopia can be corrected by wearing glasses/contacts that contain convex lenses.

Astigmatism: This defect is when the light rays do not all come to a single focal point on the retina, instead some focus on the retina and some focus in front of or behind it. This is usually caused by a non-uniform curvature of the cornea. A typical symptom of astigmatism is if you are looking at a pattern of lines placed at various angles and the lines running in one direction appear sharp whilst those in other directions appear blurred. Astigmatism can usually be corrected by using a special spherical cylindrical lens; this is placed in the out-of-focus axis.

Eye related problems:

Cataracts: A cataract is a clouding of the lens, which prevents a clear, sharp image being produced. A cataract forms because the lens is sealed in a capsule and as old cells die they get trapped in the capsule, with time this causes a clouding over of the lens. This clouding results in blurred images.

Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD)

This is a degenerative condition of the macula (the central retina). It is caused by the hardening of the arteries that nourish the retina. This deprives the retinal tissue of the nutrients and oxygen that it needs to function and causes a deterioration in central vision.


Glaucoma:   The eye produces a clear fluid (aqueous humor) that fills the space between the cornea and the iris. This fluid filters out through a complex drainage system. It is the balance between the production and drainage of this fluid that determines the eyes intraocular pressure (IOP). Glaucoma is a disease caused by increased IOP usually resulting from a malfunction in the eye’s drainage system. Increased IOP can cause irreversible damage to the optic nerve and retinal fibers and if left untreated can result in a permanent loss of vision.

Image result for eye defectsImage result for eye defects

 

Eye Problems: Symptoms from A to Z

A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I
J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R
S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z

A, B


Symptom Possible Eye Problem or Disease
Absence of eye or eyes anophthalmos
Blinking, frequent blepharospasm, contact lens problem, dry eye syndrome, foreign body, hemifacial spasm, stroke
Blinking, infrequent cranial nerve palsy, Parkinson’s disease
Bloodshot eye See: red or pink eye
Blurred vision, distance myopia. See also: blurred vision, general
Blurred vision, general accommodative disorder, albinism, amblyopia, aniridia, asteroid hyalosis, astigmatism, cataract, central serous retinopathy, computer vision syndrome, contact lens problem, corneal abrasion, corneal dystrophy, corneal erosion, cranial nerve palsy, drugs, epiretinal membrane, eye tumor, foreign body, fungal keratitis eye infection, glaucoma, hypotony, keratoconus, lens dislocation, macular degeneration, meibomianitis, migraine, neuroretinitis, nystagmus, ophthalmoplegia, optic nerve problem, orbital cellulitis, photokeratitis, pterygium, retinal detachment, retinitis, retinoschisis, scleritis, surgery, trauma, uveitis, vascular problem, vitreous hemorrhage, white dot syndrome
Blurred vision, near diabetic retinopathy, hyperopia, presbyopia. See also: blurred vision, general
Bulging eye cavernous sinus problem, eye tumor, glaucoma, Graves’ ophthalmology, histiocytosis, mucormycosis, optic nerve problem, orbital cellulitis, orbital pseudotumor, trauma, vascular problem. See also: small eye
Bump on eye (any color) papilloma, pinguecula, pterygium
Bump on eyelid (any color) chalazion, milia, nevus, papilloma, skin cancer, sty, xanthelasma
Burning blepharitis, blepharoconjunctivitis, computer vision syndrome, conjunctivitis, contact lens problem, cranial nerve palsy, dry eye syndrome, environmental condition, meibomianitis, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren’s syndrome, trauma. See also: eye pain or discomfort

C, D


Symptom Possible Eye Problem or Disease
Close appearance of
object that is actually farther away
metamorphopsia
Cloud shape in vision See: floater in vision
Clouding of the eye’s surface fungal keratitis eye infection
Clump shape in vision See: floater in vision
Color vision problem cataract, color blindness, drugs, neuroretinitis, optic nerve problem, white dot syndrome
Crossed eyes cranial nerve palsy, strabismus
Crusty eyelid blepharitis
Depth perception problem anophthalmos, blurred vision (in one eye), cranial nerve palsy, strabismus
Differing prescriptions in eyes anisometropia
Discharge canaliculitis, conjunctivitis, contact lens problem, dacryocystitis, dacryostenosis, foreign body, fungal keratitis eye infection, overflow tearing, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren’s syndrome
Distorted vision astigmatism, keratoconus, macular degeneration, metamorphopsia, migraine, ocular migraine
Double vision (diplopia) accommodative disorder, astigmatism, cranial nerve palsy, diabetic retinopathy, eye tumor (orbital), Graves’ ophthalmology, keratoconus, lens dislocation, myasthenia gravis, ophthalmoplegia, pseudotumor cerebri, stroke, trauma, vascular problem, vergence disorder. See also: shadow on letters
Droopy eyelid blepharochalasis, dermatochalasis, ptosis
Dry eyelid blepharitis, dry skin
Dry eyes blepharitis, blepharoconjunctivitis, computer vision syndrome, conjunctivitis, cranial nerve palsy, dacryoadenitis, drugs, dry eye syndrome, environmental condition, meibomianitis, rheumatoid arthritis, sarcoidosis, Sjogren’s syndrome, trauma

E, F, G


Symptom Possible Eye Problem or Disease
Eyelash loss madarosis, trichotillomania
Eyelash particles, atypical blepharitis, pediculosis
Eyelid cleft coloboma, trauma
Eyelid turns in entropion
Eyelid turns out ectropion
Eyes are different colors heterochromia
Eyes don’t point in same direction cranial nerve palsy, strabismus
Eye strain accommodative disorder, astigmatism, computer vision syndrome, convergence insufficiency, divergence insufficiency, hyperopia, myopia, presbyopia
Far appearance of object that is actually closer metamorphopsia
Floater in vision floater
Foreign body sensation (feels like something is in the eye) band keratopathy, blepharitis, contact lens problem, corneal abrasion, corneal dystrophy, corneal edema, corneal erosion, dry eye syndrome, entropion, eye tumor, foreign body (corneal or conjunctival), keratitis, pterygium (inflamed), Sjogren’s syndrome, surgery, sty, trauma. See also: eye pain or discomfort
Glare See: light sensitivity
Grittiness blepharitis, corneal abrasion, dry eye syndrome, keratitis (including radiation (UV) keratitis)

H, I, J, K, L


Symptom Possible Eye Problem or Disease
Halos around lights cataract, corneal edema, corneal opacity, drugs, glaucoma, migraine, ocular migraine
Iris defect aniridia, coloboma, eye tumor (iris), surgery, trauma
Itchy eyes allergy, conjunctivitis, contact lens problem, dry eye syndrome, entropion, pterygium (inflamed), Sjogren’s syndrome
Large appearance of objects that are actually smaller metamorphopsia
Lazy eye amblyopia
Lesions on the surface of the eye fungal keratitis eye infection
Light flashes migraine, ocular migraine, retinal detachment, retinal tear, vitreous detachment
Light sensitivity fungal keratitis eye infection, photophobia
Lights, halos around See: halos

M, N, O, P, Q


Symptom Possible Eye Problem or Disease
Movement of eyelid, limited ability cranial nerve palsy, eye tumor (orbital), trauma (orbital fracture)
Movement of eyes, involuntary nystagmus, opsoclonus
Movement of eyes, limited ability cranial nerve palsy, eye tumor (orbital), Graves’ ophthalmology, ophthalmoplegia, Parinaud dorsal midbrain syndrome, stroke, trauma
Night vision problem myopia, retinitis pigmentosa
Pain or discomfort around eyes blepharoconjunctivitis, eye tumor (orbital), orbital pseudotumor (inflammatory), sinusitis, trauma
Pain or discomfort in eye blepharitis, blepharoconjunctivitis, chalazion, conjunctivitis, contact lens problem, corneal abrasion, corneal dystrophy, corneal edema, corneal erosion, corneal ulcer, dacryocystitis, dry eye syndrome, ectropion, endophthalmitis, entropion, episcleritis, eye tumor, foreign body, fungal keratitis eye infection, glaucoma, Graves’ ophthalmology, hypotony, keratitis, migraine, mucormycosis, neuroretinitis, ophthalmoplegia, optic nerve problem, orbital cellulitis, photokeratitis, scleritis, sinusitis, sty, surgery, trauma, uveitis, vascular problem. See also: burning, foreign body sensation
Pain or discomfort, eyelid blepharitis, chalazion, ectropion, entropion, eye tumor (lid), orbital cellulitis, sty
Peripheral vision problem anophthalmos. See also: vision loss, peripheral
Pupil, large (dilated) cranial nerve palsy, drugs, trauma
Pupil, small Argyll Robertson pupil, drugs, Horner’s syndrome
Pupils, different sized anisocoria. See also: pupil, large and pupil, small
Pupil unresponsiveness to light Argyll Robertson pupil, cranial nerve palsy, drugs, glaucoma, optic nerve problem, Parinaud dorsal midbrain syndrome, tonic pupil, trauma, uveitis
Pupil, white See: spot on eye, white or cloudy

R, S


Symptom Possible Eye Problem or Disease
Red or pink eye allergy, blepharoconjunctivitis, canaliculitis, cavernous sinus problem, computer vision syndrome, conjunctivitis, contact lens problem, corneal abrasion, corneal ulcer, dacryocystitis, dry eye syndrome, ectropion, endophthalmitis, entropion, episcleritis, eye tumor, foreign body, fungal keratitis eye infection, glaucoma, Graves’ ophthalmology, meibomianitis, pterygium, scleritis, subconjunctival hemorrhage, surgery, uveitis, vascular problem
Red or pink eyelid blepharitis, blepharoconjunctivitis, contact lens problem, dacryoadenitis, ectropion, lupus erythematosus, meibomianitis, orbital cellulitis, stye, vascular birthmark. See also: spot on eyelid, colored
Shadow in vision macular degeneration, retinal detachment. See also: floater in vision
Shadow on letters astigmatism, macular degeneration. See also: double vision
Small appearance of objects that are actually larger metamorphopsia
Small eye enophthalmos, microphthalmia, ptosis. See also: bulging eye
Spasm See: eye twitching
Speck in vision See: floater in vision
Spot in vision cataract. See also: floater in vision, vision loss
Spot on eye, brown melanosis, nevus, skin cancer
Spot on eye, red or pink See: red or pink eye
Spot on eye, white or cloudy cataract, corneal edema, corneal opacity, corneal ulcer, eye tumor (intraocular), leukocoria, pinguecula, pterygium. See also: white ring/bow around iris
Spot on eye, yellow pinguecula. See also: yellow eyes
Spot on eyelid, colored eye tumor, liver spot, lupus erythematosus, melanosis, nevus, papilloma, pediculosis, skin cancer, xanthelasma. See also: red or pink eyelid
Squiggle in vision metamorphopsia. See also: floater in vision
Squinting accommodation disorder, amblyopia, hyperopia, myopia, photophobia, presbyopia, uveitis, vergence disorder. See also: light sensitivity
Sticky eyes allergy, blepharitis, blepharoconjunctivitis, conjunctivitis, dacryocystitis, dacryostenosis
Straight lines appear
wavy, curved or bent
metamorphopsia
Strand shape in vision See: floater in vision
Swelling, around eyes dacryoadenitis, dacryocystitis, eye tumor, orbital cellulitis, sinusitis, trauma
Swelling, eye chemosis, fungal keratitis eye infection, trauma
Swelling, eyelid allergy, blepharitis, canaliculitis, chalazion, contact lens problem, dacryoadenitis, eye tumor, meibomianitis, orbital cellulitis, sinusitis, sty, trauma, vascular problem

T, U, V


Symptom Possible Eye Problem or Disease
Tearing allergy, blepharitis, blepharoconjunctivitis, chalazion, conjunctivitis, corneal abrasion, corneal dystrophy, corneal ulcer, cranial nerve palsy, dacryocystitis, dacryostenosis, dry eye syndrome, entropion, environmental condition, episcleritis, foreign body, fungal keratitis eye infection, keratitis, overflow tearing, scleritis, sty, trauma, uveitis
Tired eyes See: eye strain
Tunnel vision See: vision loss, peripheral
Twitching (tic) blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm, myokymia
Vision improvement, temporary cataract
Vision loss, central central serous retinopathy, choroidal neovascularization, epiretinal membrane, macular degeneration, macular hole, migraine, neuroretinitis, optic nerve problem, vascular problem, white dot syndrome
Vision loss, general albinism, amblyopia, band keratopathy, cavernous sinus problem, corneal dystrophy, corneal edema, corneal opacity, cranial nerve palsy, diabetic retinopathy, drugs, endophthalmitis, entropion, eye tumor, foreign body, fungal keratitis eye infection, Graves’ ophthalmology, lead poisoning, Leber’s congenital amaurosis, lens dislocation, migraine, mucormycosis, neuroretinitis, optic nerve problem, orbital cellulitis, Patau syndrome, photokeratitis, pseudotumor cerebri, retinal detachment, retinitis, stroke, surgery, Tay-Sachs disease, toxocariasis, trauma, vascular problem, vitreous hemorrhage, white dot syndrome
Vision loss, peripheral drugs, glaucoma, migraine, ocular migraine, optic nerve problem, retinitis, retinitis pigmentosa

W, X, Y, Z


Symptom Possible Eye Problem or Disease
Wall-eyed (eye turned towards ear) cranial nerve palsy, strabismus
Watering eyes See: tearing
Wavy lines in vision metamorphopsia, migraine, ocular migraine. See also: floater in vision
White ring around iris arcus
White spot on eye See: spot on eye, white or cloudy
Yellow eyes jaundice
Yellow spot on eye See: spot on eye, yellow
Zigzag in vision See: floater in vision, wavy lines in vision
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